Microsoft SharePoint Workspace allows you to access your SharePoint content whether or not you are connected to the SharePoint server or working offline. When you are connected to the SharePoint server, all content updates on the server and in the workspace are automatically synchronized. When you are not connected, changes you make in the workspace are cached locally. The next time you connect to the SharePoint server, all changes are automatically synchronized. SharePoint workspaces provide easy navigation in accessing and working with your SharePoint content. If you are familiar with using a SharePoint site, you will immediately know how to use a SharePoint workspace. SharePoint workspaces, Groove workspaces, and shared folders.
This application was introduced as part of Office , though it is partly based on the older Office Groove software. Its purpose is to allow users to work with documents stored on SharePoint servers even when they are offline.
Microsoft SharePoint 2010 Training Tutorial -- Sites and Templates -- Part 1